Electromobility aims at large-scale adoption of electric vehicles by the population in order to reduce greenhouse pollutants and provide the means for even wider implementation of smart grids. The propulsion of vehicles and fleets solely based on electricity requires advances in electric powertrain technologies, V2V and V2I information and communication technologies (ICT) and smart-grid integration technologies. These advances are expected to make transportation environmentally friendlier and also safer. Electromobility provides the means to use the vehicles as distributed energy storage, opening new horizons in decentralized energy storage and management. In addition, the use of renewable energy sources to directly charge the electric vehicles allows power generation in the vicinity of demand thus reducing losses and the need for expensive investments in order to transfer the energy to distant locations.
- The new functionality of the vehicle as a large energy storage unit presents both the owner and the stakeholders of the energy market with significant advantages that conventional mobility could not offer:
- The vehicle owners may use the vehicle’s battery as an energy source that can power their house. They also may connect it to the smart grid and sell the energy to the energy provider.
- The vehicle becomes a means to transport energy to distant locations. In that way it becomes a decentralized power source.
- The dual function of the electric vehicle, which can operate both as an electric load and a power storage/generation unit shows significant potential as a means to lower operational costs in the energy market. Via the smart grid infrastructure, energy stored in EVs can be bought back when there is a demand peak, and the EVs can recharge at a lower cost when there is a lot of supply.
- EVs may offer the solution for storing energy produced by renewable energy sources, thus allowing their greater penetration and utilization. A direct result is the reduction of the overall energy production cost.
There are several types of charging the EVs.
Typically the vehicle is parked (garage,paring slot, bus terminal…) , for a long duration of time.
The vehicle is en-route and stops for a short period of time (car waiting at the traffic light, bus at a stop, etc).
The vehicle may travel at constant or variable speed typically in a devoted special lane that hosts the charging infrastructure.